One of the first steps in evaluating brain injury is diagnostic imaging. Imaging refers to various methods of viewing the structures and processes residing in the brain. Some of the more familiar modalities are CT (or CAT) scans, which use X-rays to evaluate intracranial structures. MRI, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, uses magnetic fields to illustrate the brain. However, in cases of traumatic brain injury (TBI), more advanced methods may be needed for proper diagnosis.
An MRI machine can use special software to perform a brain scan called Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). This scan detects the diffusion of water across brain cells and highlights certain areas that may be associated with injury. These injuries may not be apparent on conventional MRI’s.
PET scan (Positron Emission Tomography) measures the uptake and metabolism of glucose from a small radioactive “tagged” sample injected into the patient. The scanner monitors this sample as the brain utilizes it. The metabolic uptake and usage may differ in patients who have suffered a brain injury. This helps define the extent and type of injury.
In SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography), the tagged sample is not absorbed or utilized in the brain cells. Instead, it remains in the bloodstream and demonstrates the blood movement or perfusion through the brain. Areas of brain injury or damage may not have normal blood flow to the SPECT scan helps define these areas.
Brain injuries can result from medical malpractice. A baby may suffer birth trauma during labor and delivery. A child may have a concussion or sports injury misdiagnosed or improperly evaluated by a physician. An individual injured in a car accident may not have the indicated testing done by the emergency room. Although scientific progress in imaging studies has improved the ability to diagnose and evaluate brain injuries, these tests need to be utilized in appropriate situations so patient results and outcomes can improve.