Increased Fluid Around the Heart May Cause Cardiac Tamponade

Pericardial effusion occurs when there is an abnormal amount of fluid around the heart.  The heart is normally surrounded by a thin membranous sac called the pericardium.  The space between the pericardium and the muscle that is the heart is referred to as the pericardial space.  Normal levels of pericardial fluid within the pericardial space are from 15 to 50 mL or about 1-3 tablespoons. An effusion, therefore, represents an abnormal accumulation of fluid in Continue Reading

Pheochromocytoma and Medical Malpractice

Pheochromocytoma is an adrenal gland tumor comprised of chromaffin cells that produce and release excess epinephrine and norepinephrine, which are hormones that affect heart rate, metabolism, and blood pressure. Pheochromocytomas are generally benign and can appear at any age; however, they commonly occur during middle age. If left untreated or unrecognized, this tumor can be life-threatening. Researchers have yet to discover the underlying cause of pheochromocytoma. However, certain disorders such as Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type Continue Reading

Deep Venous Thrombosis and Medical Malpractice

Deep venous thrombosis is the development of a blood clot in the large, deep veins of the lower leg and thigh. Thrombi can cause tissue injury due to vascular occlusion or distal embolization. However, the venous obstruction can be offset by collateral blood vessels. Thrombi can also cause local pain and edema due to the blockage of blood flow. If the clot breaks off and travels through the blood, it is referred to as an Continue Reading

Brain Injuries and Birth

The brain is responsible for higher motor and sensory functions. It requires a constant source of oxygen in order to continue its vital functions. When the flow of oxygen is interrupted, the consequences can be devastating.  Severe injury can occur when the brain lacks the oxygen needed to continue functioning. A total lack of oxygen can be referred to as “anoxic” injury whereas a partial lack of flow can be referred to as “hypoxic” injury. Brain Continue Reading